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Comparison of packaging methods for bulk storage of fresh cod loins / Samanburður pakkningalausna í frauðumbúðum við geymslu á þorskafurðum

Author(s):

Hélène L. Lauzon, Aðalheiður Ólafsdóttir, Eyjólfur Reynisson, Björn Margeirsson

Funded by:

Promens Tempra ehf, Umbúðir og ráðgjöf ehf

Contact

Aðalheiður Ólafsdóttir

Sensory Evaluation Manager

adalheiduro@matis.is

Comparison of packaging methods for bulk storage of fresh cod loins / Samanburður pakkningalausna í frauðumbúðum við geymslu á þorskafurðum

Meginmarkmið tilraunarinnar var að bera saman pakkningalausnir fyrir fisk m.t.t. gæðarýrnunar og vöruhita við geymslu sem líkist aðstæðum við útflutning og dreifingu. Markmiðin voru að bera saman kæligeymslu á vörum pökkuðum (1) í 5‐kg einingum í (H1) skipa‐ eða (H2) flugkössum; (2) í 3‐kg einingum í (H3) flugkössum samanborið við H2; (3) með CO2‐ mottur (H4) til að draga úr örveruvexti í 5‐kg einingum geymdum undir 93% vakúm í EPS kössum. Niðurstöður sýna að líftími H1 var styst, en minni gæðabreytingar voru meðal hinna hópanna. Hins vegar var ferskleikinn mestur og líftíminn lengstur hjá H4, sem ber saman við hægari TVB‐N og TMA myndun og örveruvöxt vegna CO2‐myndunar ásamt lægri vöruhita. Hraðastur örveruvöxtur mældist í H3 eftir 8 daga geymslu. Enginn marktækur munur var milli hópanna m.t.t. TVB‐N og TMA gilda, sem voru hæst í H1 og H3. Drip var a.m.k. helmingi hærra í H4 en í öðrum hópum.

The overall aim of the storage study was to compare the quality deterioration and temperature profile of cod loins differently packaged in expanded polystyrene boxes and stored under conditions mimicking distribution. The purpose of the study was threefold; to compare chilled storage (1) of 5‐kg bulk fish packaged in sea freight (H1) or air freight (H2) boxes; (2) of 3‐kg (H3) or 5‐kg (H2) bulk fish packaged in air freight boxes; (3) with the use of CO2‐emitting pads (H4) as a mean to slow down bacterial deterioration of cod loins (5 kg) packaged under partial vacuum and stored in EPS boxes. The results clearly indicated that group H1 had a shorter shelf life as it developed spoilage characteristics faster than the other three groups. Less difference was seen between the remaining three groups but group H4 retained its freshness slightly longer than groups H2 and H3. This can be explained by the CO2 present and the lower mean product temperature. More advanced microbial spoilage was detected in H3 group compared to H2, as shown by higher microbial counts in H3 being though insignificant. No significant differences were observed after 8‐day storage in TVB‐N and TMA content of the four groups, despite the higher levels measured in H1 and H3. Drip loss was at least two times higher in H4 than the other groups.

Closed Report / Lokuð skýrsla

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Effect of temperature control on the efficiency of modified atmosphere packaging of cod loins in bulk

Author(s):

Hélène L. Lauzon, Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir, Magnea G. Karlsdóttir, Eyjólfur Reynisson, Björn Margeirsson, Emilía Martinsdóttir

Funded by:

EU IP Chill‐on (contract FP6‐016333‐2)

Contact

Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir

Project Manager

kolbrun.sveinsdottir@matis.is

Effect of temperature control on the efficiency of modified atmosphere packaging of cod loins in bulk

Markmið tilraunarinnar var að bera saman ferskleika, gæði og geymsluþol undirkældra (CBC) þorskhnakka við geymslu í lofti og í loftskiptum pakkningum (MAP) við stýrt hitastig til að líkja eftir hitasveiflum við flutninga og dreifingu á Evrópumarkaði. Fylgst var með breytingum á samsetningu gassins í pakkningunum og gert skynmat og örveru‐  og efnamælingar. Fiskurinn var veiddur í botnvörpu að vorlagi og unninn þremur dögum frá veiði. Tveggja daga lenging varð á ferskleikatímabili og eins dags á geymsluþoli fisks í loftskiptum pakkningum (2,7 kg í bakka) miðað við loft (3,1 kg) í frauðplasti þrátt fyrir að 0.5 °C munur hafi verið á meðalhitastigi hópanna og var lofthópurinn geymdur við lægra hitastig  (‐0.3 ± 0.9 °C). Mestu hitasveiflurnar leiddu til mestrar styttingar á ferskleika‐ tíma í loftskiptum pakkningum. Þorskhnakkar sem geymdir voru undirkældir við ‐1.1 ± 0.1 °C höfðu 13 daga geymsluþol. Niðurstöður örverutalninga og efnamælinga sýndu hversu mikilvæg Photobacterium phosphoreum er við TMA‐myndun í skemmdarferli þorskhnakka við geymslu bæði í lofti og loftskiptum pakkningum. MAP og undirkæling hægðu á og breyttu skemmdarferlinu. MAP jók drip um 2% á seinni stigum geymslunnar.

The aim of this study was to compare freshness, quality deterioration and shelf life of CBC (combined blast and contact)‐treated cod loins packaged in bulk under different atmospheres (air or modified atmosphere, MA) and stored under different temperature profiles to mimic temperature changes during transport and distribution to European markets. Sensory, chemical, microbial and headspace gas composition analyses were performed regularly. The fish was caught by trawler in the spring and processed 3 days post catch. Following simulation of current sea freight conditions and distribution to European markets, a 2‐day and 1‐day increase in freshness period and shelf life of MA‐packaged fish (2.7 kg in trays), respectively, was observed compared to air‐stored loins (3.1 kg in EPS boxes). This is despite a mean product temperature difference of 0.5 °C between the products, being lower (‐0.3 ± 0.9 °C) for air‐stored fish. Abusive conditions had the greatest impact on the reduction of the freshness period for MAP fish. Superchilled storage of MAP loins (‐1.1 ± 0.1 °C) resulted in a 13‐day shelf life. Evaluation of microbial and chemical indicators emphasised the importance of Photobacterium phosphoreum and TMA formation in the deterioration of cod loins stored in air or MA, while superchilled MAP storage delayed as well as modified the spoilage pattern. MAP increased drip loss by about 2% at late storage.

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Overview on fish quality research – Impact of fish handling, processing, storage and logistics on fish quality deterioration

Author(s):

Hélène L. Lauzon, Björn Margeirsson, Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir, María Guðjónsdóttir, Magnea G. Karlsdóttir, Emilía Martinsdóttir

Funded by:

AVS R&D Fund of Ministry of Fisheries in Iceland, Technology Development Fund and EU IP Chill-on (contract FP6-016333-2)

Contact

Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir

Project Manager

kolbrun.sveinsdottir@matis.is

Overview on fish quality research – Impact of fish handling, processing, storage and logistics on fish quality deterioration

Stutt geymsluþol fisks er takmarkandi þáttur í útflutningi ferskra fiskafurða frá Íslandi. Fjallað er um upphafsgæði hráefnis, aðferðir við kælingu, vinnslu, pökkun og aðstæður við geymslu og flutning ásamt áhrifum allra þessara þátta á ferskleika og geymsluþol fiskafurða. Hitastigsstýring er mjög mikilvæg til að viðhalda gæðum fisks. Forkæling flaka í vinnslu hefur verið notuð til að lækka hitastig fyrir pökkun. Samt sem áður verður að gæta þess að tæknin við forkælingu stofni ekki örveruástandi vörunnar í hættu og verði þar með til að hún skemmist fyrr eftir pökkun. Samverkandi áhrif sem verða af ofurkælingu og loftskiptri pökkun (MAP) geta lengt ferskleikatímabil og geymsluþol fiskafurða verulega. Ennfremur eru pökkunaraðferðir skoðaðar þar á meðal nýjar umhverfisvænni pakkningar. Að lokum er rætt um áhrif flutningaleiða ferskra fiskafurða á lokagæði þeirra til neytenda á markaði. Skýrsla þessi veitir yfirsýn yfir rannsóknir Rannsóknastofnunar fiskiðnaðarins og Matís ohf síðastliðna þrjá áratugi á viðfangsefninu. Ennfremur er rætt um hvernig þessar niðurstöður geti nýst fiskiðnaðinum.

The limited shelf life of fresh fish products is a large hurdle for the export of fresh products from Iceland. The influence of raw material quality, cooling methods, processing, packaging and storage conditions on freshness and shelf life extension is discussed. Temperature control is important to maintain fish quality. Pre-cooling of fillets in process has been used to lower the temperature prior to packaging. However, the cooling technique applied should not compromise the microbiological quality of the product and render it vulnerable to faster spoilage postpackaging. Synergism of combined superchilling and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) can lead to a considerable extension of the freshness period and shelf life of fish products. Further, alternative and environmentally-friendly packaging methods are considered. Finally, the impact of transportation mode of fresh fish products on their resulting quality is examined. This report provides an overview of the findings on fish research carried out at Matís (Icelandic Fisheries Laboratories) over the last three decades and further discusses their practicality for the fish processing industry.

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The effect of different cooling techniques on the quality changes and shelf life of whole cod (Gadus morhua)

Author(s):

Hannes Magnússon, Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir, Lárus Þorvaldsson, María Guðjónsdóttir, Hélène L. Lauzon, Eyjólfur Reynisson, Árni R. Rúnarsson, Sveinn H. Magnússon, Jónas R. Viðarsson, Sigurjón Arason, Emilía Martinsdóttir

Funded by:

AVS R&D Fund of Ministry of Fisheries in Iceland, the Technology Development Fund at the Icelandic Centre for Research and EU (contract FP6-016333-2)

Contact

Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir

Project Manager

kolbrun.sveinsdottir@matis.is

The effect of different cooling techniques on the quality changes and shelf life of whole cod (Gadus morhua)

Tilgangur tilraunarinnar var að kanna áhrif þriggja mismunandi kæliaðferða á geymsluþol heils, slægðs þorsks: (i) Kæling með muldum plötuís, (ii) kæling með vökvaís, (iii) forkæling með vökvaís og síðan kæling með muldum plötuís. Fylgst var með hitastigsferlum með hitanemum í öllum hópum yfir geymslutímann. Sýni voru metin með skynmats-, örveru- og efnamælingum þá 10 daga sem fiskurinn var í geymslu. Niðurstöður örveru- og efnamælinga voru yfirleitt í góðu samræmi við niðurstöður skynmats. Samanburður á tilraunahópum leiddi í ljós að þorskur kældur með vökvaís hafði um tveggja til þriggja daga skemmra geymsluþol en hinir tveir hóparnir. Geymsluþol þorsksins var töluvert styttra en ýmsar fyrri rannsóknir hafa sýnt og þá sérstaklega í hópnum sem var kældur með vökvaís (aðeins 9-10 dagar). Nú liggur fyrir að þorskurinn sem var kældur með vökvaís var vanísaður um borð í veiðiskipinu miðað við hina tvo hópana. Auk þess var kæling við geymslu eftir löndun ekki eins góð og æskileg gæti talist en hitastigið sveiflaðist á milli 2-5 °C. Þetta gæti mögulega skýrt skemmra geymsluþol allra hópa miðað við fyrri rannsóknir.

The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effect of three different cooling methods on the storage quality of whole, bled gutted cod: (i) Cooled with crushed plate ice, (ii) cooled with liquid ice, (iii) pre-cooled in liquid ice and then cooled with crushed plate ice. The temperature history of each group was studied using temperature loggers. The samples were analysed with sensory, microbiological and chemical methods for up to 10 days from catch. The results from microbial and chemical measurements were generally in good agreement with the results from sensory evaluation. Comparison of the groups showed that the use of liquid ice instead of plate ice resulted in two to three day shorter shelf life than in the other two groups. The shelf life in this study was considerably shorter compared to previous studies with whole cod, especially in the experimental group where liquid ice was used for cooling (only 9-10 days). It is now known that the liquid iced group in this experiment was insufficiently iced on board the fishing vessel compared to the other two groups. Additionally, the ambient temperature in the cold room of the fish plant was relatively high and fluctuated between 2 – 5 °C during the storage period. This could possibly explain the shorter shelf life of all groups compared to some earlier studies.

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Effect of improved design of wholesale EPS fish boxes on thermal insulation and storage life of cod loins – simulation of air and sea transport

Author(s):

Björn Margeirsson, Hélène L. Lauzon, Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir, Eyjólfur Reynisson, Hannes Magnússon, Sigurjón Arason, Emilía Martinsdóttir

Funded by:

EU (contract FP6-016333-2) Chill-on, AVS Fund of Ministry of Fisheries in Iceland (project no. R037-08), Technology Development Fund of the Icelandic Centre for Research (project. no. 081304508), University of Iceland Research Fund

Contact

Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir

Project Manager

kolbrun.sveinsdottir@matis.is

Effect of improved design of wholesale EPS fish boxes on thermal insulation and storage life of cod loins – simulation of air and sea transport

Markmið tilraunanna var að rannsaka hve vel tvær tegundir frauðkassa verja þorskhnakkastykki fyrir dæmigerðu hitaálagi í flugflutningskeðju frá framleiðanda á norðanverðu Íslandi til kaupanda í Evrópu. Notast var við hitamælingar, skynmat, efna- og örverumælingar til að bera frauðkassana saman og kanna mikilvægi staðsetningar flakabita innan kassa (horn og miðja). Að lokum var geymsluþol hnakkastykkja, sem urðu fyrir dæmigerðu flugflutningshitaálagi, borið saman við geymsluþol hnakkastykkja við stöðuga -1 °C geymslu sem er raunhæfur möguleiki við gámaflutninga með skipum. Nýi frauðkassinn, sem hannaður var með FLUENT varmaflutningslíkani, reyndist betri en eldri kassinn með tilliti til varmaeinangrunar. Hitaálagið á fyrsta degi tilraunarinnar olli því að hæsti vöruhiti í hornum hækkaði í 5.4 °C í eldri gerðinni en einungis í 4.5 °C í þeirri nýju. Munur milli hæsta vöruhita í miðjum og hornum kassa var um 2 til 3 °C. Með skynmati var sýnt fram á að geymsla í nýja frauðkassanum leiddi til tveggja til þriggja daga lengra ferskleikatímabils og eins til tveggja daga lengra geymsluþols m.v. geymslu í eldri frauðkassanum. Munurinn milli kassanna var þó ekki staðfestur með efna- og örverumælingum. Staðsetning innan kassa (horn og miðja) hafði ekki marktæk áhrif á niðurstöður skynmats og var einungis um lítinn mun að ræða milli staðsetninga í mælingum á TVB-N og TMA. Hermun flug- og sjóflutnings (hitasveiflur og stöðugur hiti) leiddi í ljós að fyrir vel forkælda þorskhnakka má vænta eins til fimm daga lengra ferskleikatímabils og um þriggja til fimm daga lengra geymsluþols í vel hitastýrðum sjóflutningi miðað við dæmigerðan flugflutningsferil frá Norðurlandi. Þar sem sjóflutningur frá Íslandi tekur oft um fjórum til fimm dögum lengri tíma en flugflutningur (háð m.a. vikudegi og staðsetningu vinnslunnar) sýnir þetta að sjóflutningur er raunhæfur möguleiki fyrir íslenska ferskfiskframleiðendur. Með notkun á nýju frauðkössunum í flugflutningi á fiskurinn þó eftir lengra ferskleikatímabil þegar hann kemst í hendur kaupenda erlendis en í skipaflutningi.

2. útgáfa, mars 2011

Í fyrri útgáfu skýrslunnar þótti ekki nógu skýrt koma fram að sá umhverfishitaferill, sem líkja átti eftir sjóflutningi, miðaðist í raun við nokkurn veginn bestu mögulegu aðstæður í sjóflutningskeðjum ferskra fiskafurða frá Íslandi. Hitamælingar í kæliverkefnunum Hermun kæliferla og Chill-on hafa sýnt fram á að forflutningi innanlands fylgir oft óæskilegt hitaálag í nokkrar klst. hvort sem um er að ræða flug- eða sjóflutningskeðjur. Til þessa hitaálags var tekið tillit í tilfelli flugkeðjunnar en ekki sjóflutningskeðjunnar í fyrstu útgáfu skýrslunnar. Mest áhersla var á lengd geymsluþols í fyrri útgáfu skýrslunnar en bætt er við umfjöllun um ferskleikatímabil í nýrri útgáfu hennar.

The aim of the study was to investigate the performance of two different types of EPS boxes in protecting pre-chilled, fresh fish products subjected to temperature conditions, which are likely to occur during air- and land based, multimodal transport from a processor in North-Iceland to a wholesaler in Europe. The performance of the EPS boxes was evaluated by means of temperature monitoring, chemical- and microbial measurements and finally sensory evaluation. Furthermore, effect of fillet positions inside the wholesale fish packages (corner vs. middle) were investigated by means of the aforementioned methods. Finally, the shelf life of the air-transported simulation fish loins was compared to the shelf life of fish loins stored at around -1 °C, which can be achieved during non-interrupted and well temperature-controlled, containerised sea transport. The new box, designed with a numerical FLUENT heat transfer model, proved to be better with regard to thermal insulation than the old box. The thermal load during the first day of the experiment caused the maximum product temperatures in the bottom corners of the top and second top to rise to 5.4 °C and 4.5 °C for the original and new boxes, respectively. The maximum temperature in the middle of the boxes was around 2 to 3 °C lower than the maximum temperature in the bottom corners. According to sensory evaluation, storage in the new boxes resulted in approximately two to three days longer freshness period and one to two days longer shelf life than storage in the old boxes. The difference between the two box types is not as clear with regard to chemical and microbial measurements.

The sampling location (corner versus middle), did not significantly affect the sensory quality and only minor differences were noticed in TVB-N and TMA between sampling locations in the new box. Comparing the steady and dynamic storage in the old boxes it can be concluded that the increased freshness period (around 1-5 days) and shelf life (around 3-5 days) at steady temperature could compensate for the longer transport time by sea instead of air freight. This makes containerised sea transport a worthy choice for Icelandic fresh fish manufacturers depending on the week day and location of processing. However, for maximum remaining freshness period at the time of delivery to the buyer in Europe the results showed that air transport with the new boxes is the more advantageous transport mode relying on shorter transport time and improved thermal protection of the new boxes.

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The effect of cooling methods at processing and use of gel-packs on storage life of cod (Gadus morhua) loins – Effect of transport via air and sea on temperature control and retail-packaging on cod deterioration

Author(s):

Emilía Martinsdóttir, Hélène L. Lauzon, Björn Margeirsson, Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir, Lárus Þorvaldsson, Hannes Magnússon, Eyjólfur Reynisson, Arna Vigdís Jónsdóttir, Sigurjón Arason, Maria Eden

Funded by:

EU (contract FP6-016333-2) Chill-on, AVS, R&D Fund of Ministry of Fisheries in Iceland, the Technology Development Fund at the Icelandic Centre for Research

Contact

Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir

Project Manager

kolbrun.sveinsdottir@matis.is

The effect of cooling methods at processing and use of gel-packs on storage life of cod (Gadus morhua) loins – Effect of transport via air and sea on temperature control and retail-packaging on cod deterioration

Tilgangur tilraunanna var að kanna áhrif mismunandi kælingar við vinnslu og hitasveiflna í flutningi með og án kælimottu á geymsluþol þorskhnakka. Í vinnslu var borið saman að nota enga forkælingu fyrir flökun, vökvakælingu og roðkælingu (CBC) sem alltaf er með vökvakælingu. Áhrif hitasveiflna þar sem líkt var eftir í hitabreytingum í flutningi (RTS) voru borin saman við geymslu við stöðugt hitastig (-1 °C). Einnig voru metin áhrif þess að nota kælimottu í geymslu og flutningi. Sýni voru gæðametin með skynmati, örveru- og efnamælingum. Fylgst var með hitastigi með hitasíritum. Roðkældir þorskhnakkar í frauðplastkössum voru fluttir til Bremerhaven með flugi og skipi þar sem þeim var endurpakkað í loft og loftskiptar pakkningar (MAP) og þær geymdar við 1 °C. Gerðar voru efna- og örverumælingar til að fylgjast með gæðabreytingum. Hitastig roðkældra hnakka var lægra en hinna fyrstu 2 daga tilraunarinnar. Kælimotturnar höfðu ákveðin áhrif til lækkunar hitastigs þegar hitasveiflur voru í ferlinu og lægri hiti hélst gegnum allan geymslutímann. Samt sem áður hafði notkunin ekki áhrif á lengd ferskleikatíma eða geymsluþols samkvæmt skynmati. Örverufjöldi var heldur lægri ef hitasveiflur urðu í ferlinum en lítill munur var við stöðugt hitastig. Geymsla við stöðugt, lágt hitastig (-1 °C) lengdi geymsluþol um ca. 3 daga samkvæmt skynmati og var það í samræmi við örverutalningar og mælingar á TVB-N og TMA. Í tilraunum í Bremerhaven kom fram að örverufjöldi var yfirleitt lægri þegar notaðar voru loftskiptar umbúðir í samanburði við fisk í lofti. Þetta var sérstaklega áberandi í flugfiskinum. Fiskurinn sem fluttur var með skipi geymdist samt jafn lengi og fiskurinn sem fluttur var með flugi. Þetta orsakast af því að flugfiskurinn varð fyrir meiri hitasveiflum í flutningi og yfirborðshiti hans mældist 4 °C við komuna til Bremerhaven. Flutningstími með skipi var miklu lengri (+48 klst) en yfirborðshiti mældist undir 2 °C við móttöku. Notkun kælimotta hafði lítil áhrif á hitastigið í flutningi en samt sem áður var yfirborðshiti aðeins lægri í fiski með kælimottum við komuna til Bremerhaven bæði með flugi og skipi.

The main aim of the experiment was to investigate the effects of different cooling techniques during processing and temperature fluctuations during transport on the storage life of cod loins with and without gel packs. The following cooling techniques were studied: combined blast and contact (CBC) cooling (with liquid cooling prior to the CBC cooling), only liquid cooling and where no special cooling was used prior to deskinning and trimming. The effect of real temperature simulation (RTS) during storage was compared to a steady storage temperature of -1 °C. The samples were analysed with sensory, microbial and chemical methods. The temperature was monitored from packaging using temperature loggers. CBC cooled loins were transported to Bremerhaven via air and ship freight after packaging in EPS boxes. The fish was repacked in air and modified atmosphere and stored at 1 °C. Deteriorative changes were evaluated by microbial and chemical indicators. CBC cooling resulted in a lower temperature profile the first two days of the experiment. The use of gel packs lowered somewhat the temperature increase in the products when RTS was applied and lower temperature was maintained during the entire storage period. According to sensory evaluation, the use of gel packs did not result in prolonged freshness period or shelf life. According to microbial and chemical analysis no marked difference was seen whether gel packs were used or not in groups stored at a steady temperature. However, microbial counts were somewhat lower and slower formation of TVB-N and TMA occurred in RTS groups where gel packs were used compared to no gel packs. Storage at a steady -1 °C resulted in prolonged shelf life of three days according to sensory evaluation. This was confirmed by microbial and chemical analysis as lower microbial counts, TVB-N and TMA values were generally obtained in the steady temperature group than in the group receiving the RTS treatment. The storage studies carried out at Bremerhaven on modified atmosphere vs. air packed loins showed generally lower microbial counts, especially in the air transported fish. Deterioration process of air and sea freight fish was however similar. Re-packaging of sea freight fish at a later stage did not significantly affect its deteriorative process compared to re-packed air freight fish. This might be due to the fact, that the air freight fish was subject to high temperatures during transport and surface temperature reached over 4 °C. The sea freight fish had a much longer transport phase, but arrived with surface temperatures below 2° C. This shows that not only the time of re-packaging but also the temperature profile during transport are important factors influencing the deteriorative process and shelf life. Gel packs did not have significant cooling effect in this experiment. However the surface temperature in boxes with a gel pack was slightly lower than in boxes without a gel pack independently of transport mode used.

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The effect of different precooling media during processing and cooling techniques during packaging of cod (Gadus morhua) fillets

Author(s):

Björn Margeirsson, Hannes Magnússon, Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir, Kristín Líf Valtýsdóttir, Eyjólfur Reynisson, Sigurjón Arason

Funded by:

AVS Fund of Ministry of Fisheries in Iceland, The Technology Development Fund at the Icelandic Centre for Research, University of Iceland Research Fund

Contact

Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir

Project Manager

kolbrun.sveinsdottir@matis.is

The effect of different precooling media during processing and cooling techniques during packaging of cod (Gadus morhua) fillets

Tilgangur tilraunanna var að kanna áhrif mismunandi kælimiðla við forkælingu fyrir pökkun á hitastýringu, gæði og geymsluþol þorskflaka. Eftirfarandi kælimiðlar voru kannaðir og bornir saman við enga sérstaka forkælingu fyrir pökkun:

  1. pækill með lágu saltinnihaldi, 2) krapaís með lágu saltinnihaldi.

Auk þess voru könnuð áhrif þess að nota annars vegar ísmottur og hins vegar þurrís við geymslu flakanna. Fylgst var með breytingum á hitastigi með hitanemum á öllum stigum. Sýni voru gæðametin með skynmati, örveru- og efnamælingum í allt að 13 daga frá vinnslu og pökkun (16 daga frá veiði). Flökin voru geymd við ofurkældar aðstæður (undir 0 °C) mestan hluta geymslutímans. Lægra hitastig krapaíss en pækils leiddi til lægra hitastigs flaka við pökkun auk þess sem hiti vökvapækilsins reyndist hækka hratt þegar hlé var gert á vinnslu. Mismunandi meðhöndlun leiddi til sambærilegs ferskleikatíma samkvæmt skynmati. Hins vegar reyndist notkun vökvapækils við forkælingu fyrir pökkun leiða til 1 – 2 daga skemmra geymsluþols samanborið við enga forkælingu eða forkælingu með krapaís. Rekja má ástæður þessa til þess að pækillinn innihélt töluvert magn örvera, m.a. H2S-myndandi gerla sem eru virkir framleiðendur á trímetýlamíni (TMA). Samanburður á vökvakældu flökunum sýndi að notkun á þurrís lengdi geymsluþol um 1 dag í samanburði við ísmottur. Niðurstöður örveru- og efnamælinga voru í samræmi við þessar niðurstöður.

The aim of the experiment was to investigate effects of two cooling media during precooling at processing on temperature control, quality and storage life of cod fillets. The two cooling media compared to no special precooling during processing (NC) were: 1) liquid brine (LC) and 2) slurry ice (SIC). In addition, the influence of using either dry ice or ice packs during storage was studied. The samples were kept at superchilled conditions during most of the trial. The environmental and product temperature history of each group was studied using temperature monitors. The samples were analysed with sensory evaluation, microbial and chemical methods for up to sixteen days from catch (thirteen days from processing). Lower temperature of the slurry ice than the liquid brine resulted in lower fillet temperature at packaging and the liquid brine temperature increased rapidly during a processing break, which seems to be a weakness of the liquid brine tank. Results from sensory, microbial and chemical analysis all showed that immersing the skinless cod fillets in liquid cooling brine prior to packaging resulted in one to two days reduction of shelf life in comparison with fillets that were not immersed in liquid brine (no cooling) or in slurry ice. This could be attributed to the fact that the cooling brine carried considerable amounts of microbes including H2Sproducing bacteria which are active producers of trimethylamine (TMA). Comparison of the groups receiving liquid cooling showed that dry ice appeared to extend the shelf life of one day as compared to ice packs. The length of the freshness period was, however, similar in all experimental groups according to sensory evaluation. These results were confirmed by total volatile bases (TVB-N) and TMA analysis and microbial counts.

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The effect of liquid cooling at processing and different cooling techniques during transport of cod (Gadus morhua) fillets

Author(s):

Hannes Magnússon, Lárus Þorvaldsson, Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir, Hélène L. Lauzon, Kristín Anna Þórarinsdóttir, Sigurjón Arason, Emilía Martinsdóttir

Funded by:

AVS R&D Fund of Ministry of Fisheries in Iceland, the Technology Development Fund at the Icelandic Centre for Research and EU (contract FP6-016333-2)

Contact

Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir

Project Manager

kolbrun.sveinsdottir@matis.is

The effect of liquid cooling at processing and different cooling techniques during transport of cod (Gadus morhua) fillets

Tilgangur tilraunanna var að kanna áhrif mismunandi kælitækni og áhrif hitasveiflna á gæði og geymsluþol þorskflaka. Eftirfarandi kælitækni var könnuð: Vökvakæling í pækli við vinnslu miðað við enga kælingu og áhrif hitasveiflna við geymslu í samanburði við stöðugt hitastig (-1°C). Auk þess voru könnuð áhrif þess að nota annars vegar ísmottur og hins vegar þurrís við geymslu flakanna. Fylgst var með breytingum á hitastigi með hitanemum á öllum stigum. Sýni voru gæðametin með skynmati, örveru- og efnamælingum í allt að 14 daga frá veiði (11 daga frá vinnslu og pökkun). Mismunandi meðhöndlun leiddi til mismunandi ferskleikatíma og geymsluþols samkvæmt skynmati. Hópar sem voru vökvakældir við vinnslu höfðu um 2-3 daga skemmra geymsluþol en flök sem ekki voru kæld á þennan hátt. Rekja mátti ástæður þessa til þess að kælipækillinn innihélt töluvert magn örvera m.a. skemmdargerilinn Photobacterium phosphoreum sem er mjög virkur framleiðandi á trímetýlamíni (TMA). Samanburður á vökvakældu flökunum sýndi að notkun á þurrís lengdi geymsluþol um 1-2 daga í samanburði við ísmottur. Geymsla við -1°C hafði ekki merkjanleg áhrif á ferskleikatíma og geymsluþol í samanburði við flök þar sem hitasveiflum var beitt samkvæmt skynmati. Niðurstöður örveru- og efnamælinga voru í samræmi við þessar niðurstöður.

The aim of the experiment was to investigate the effects of different cooling techniques and temperature fluctuations on the storage life of cod fillets. The following cooling techniques were studied: liquid cooling in brine at plant as compared to no special cooling at processing. The effect of real temperature (RTS) simulation during storage was compared to a steady storage temperature at -1°C. Additionally, the influence of using either dry ice or ice packs during storage was studied. The temperature history of each group was studied using temperature loggings. The samples were analyzed with sensory evaluation, microbial and chemical methods for up to 14 days from catch (11 days from packaging). The different treatments of the groups resulted in different lengths of freshness period and maximum shelf life according to sensory evaluation. Liquid cooling resulted in a 2-3 days shorter maximum shelf life than the group that was not receiving liquid cooling. This could be attributed to the fact that the cooling brine carried considerable amounts of microbes including the spoilage bacterium Photobacterium phosphoreum which is an active producer of trimethylamine (TMA). Comparison of the groups receiving liquid cooling showed that dry ice appeared to extend the shelf life of 1-2 days as compared to ice packs. Storage at -1°C did not have much influence on the freshness period or maximum shelf life. These results were confirmed by total volatile bases (TVB-N) and TMA analysis and microbial counts.

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The effect of different cooling techniques and temperature fluctuations on the storage life of cod fillets (Gadus morhua)

Author(s):

Hannes Magnússon, Hélène L. Lauzon, Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir, Björn Margeirsson, Eyjólfur Reynisson, Árni Rafn Rúnarsson, María Guðjónsdóttir, Kristín Anna Þórarinsdóttir, Sigurjón Arason, Emilía Martinsdóttir

Funded by:

AVS R&D Fund of Ministry of Fisheries in Iceland, the Technology Development Fund at the Icelandic Centre for Research and EU (contract FP6-016333-2)

Contact

Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir

Project Manager

kolbrun.sveinsdottir@matis.is

The effect of different cooling techniques and temperature fluctuations on the storage life of cod fillets (Gadus morhua)

Tilgangur tilraunanna var að kanna tvo kælimiðla um borð í veiðiskipi, að nota mismunandi kælitækni við vinnslu, m.a. svonefnda CBC (combined blast and contact) kælingu og kanna áhrif hitastigssveiflna við geymslu í samanburði við stöðuga geymslu við -1 °C. Lítill munur var á örveru- og efnamælingum hvort sem notaður var plötuís eða vökvaís fyrir vinnslu en samkvæmt skynmati reyndist hópurinn sem var kældur með vökvaís hafa eins dags lengri ferskleikatíma og geymsluþol. Hitastig var yfirleitt aðeins hærra í hópnum þar sem plötuís var notaður fyrir vinnslu yfir geymslutímann. Samkvæmt skynmati, örverutalningum og efnamælingum reyndist CBC kæling best til lengingar á ferskleikatíma og geymsluþoli. Hitastig reyndist vera lægra í þeim hópum þar sem CBC kæling var notuð. Örverufjöldi var svipaður í þeim tveimur hópum þar sem CBC kæling var ekki notuð við vinnsluna (vökvakæling og engin kæling). Þessar niðurstöður voru í samræmi við niðurstöður skynmats. TMA gildi voru aðeins hærri á geymsludögum 12-19 í hópnum sem var vökvakældur. Niðurstöður hitastigsmælinga yfir geymslutímann voru svipaðar. Svipaður örverufjöldi reyndist vera í hópum sem geymdir voru við stöðugt hitastig (um -1 °C) annars vegar og í hópum þar sem hitastigssveiflum var beitt fyrri hluta geymslutímans hins vegar. Fyrstu 15 daga geymslunnar reyndust TVB-N og TMA gildi vera svipuð í hópunum. Þeir hópar sem geymdir voru við stöðugt hitastig fóru ekki í skynmat. Örverumælingar sem gerðar voru með hinni fljótvirku aðferð qPCR voru í góðu samræmi við ræktunaraðferðir m.t.t. til Pseudomonas spp. og Photobacterium phosphoreum.

The purpose of this experiment was to examine two different cooling methods on board fishing vessel, to apply different cooling techniques during processing at fish plant including the CBC (combined blast and contact) cooling and to compare storage of packed cod fillets kept either at steady temperature (-1 °C) or under temperature fluctuations. No marked difference was seen in microbial and chemical measurements whether plate ice or liquid ice was used prior to filleting but according to sensory analysis, the experimental group where liquid ice was used had one day extension in freshness and shelf life compared to the group with plate ice. Temperature was usually slightly higher in the plate ice group than the liquid ice group during storage. According to sensory, microbiological and chemical analysis, the CBC cooling clearly resulted in longer freshness period and shelf life extension in comparison to the two groups where this technique was not applied during processing. Temperature was lower in these groups during the storage period. Similar microbial counts were found between the two experimental groups where CBC was not applied during processing (liquid cooling and no cooling). These results were in agreement with results from sensory analysis. TMA values were however higher on storage days 12 to 19 in the group with liquid cooling. Temperature measurements during storage of these two groups were very similar. No marked difference was seen in microbial counts between groups that were stored at a constant temperature around -1 °C compared to groups where temperature fluctuations were used during early phases of storage. During the first 15 days of storage, TVB-N and TMA values were very similar for these groups. Sensory analysis was not done on the two groups kept at -1 °C. The rapid qPCR analysis was generally in good agreement with the cultivation methods for Pseudomonas spp. and Photobacterium phosphoreum.

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