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The effect of different precooling media during processing and cooling techniques during packaging of cod (Gadus morhua) fillets

Author(s):

Björn Margeirsson, Hannes Magnússon, Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir, Kristín Líf Valtýsdóttir, Eyjólfur Reynisson, Sigurjón Arason

Funded by:

AVS Fund of Ministry of Fisheries in Iceland, The Technology Development Fund at the Icelandic Centre for Research, University of Iceland Research Fund

Contact

Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir

Project Manager

kolbrun.sveinsdottir@matis.is

The effect of different precooling media during processing and cooling techniques during packaging of cod (Gadus morhua) fillets

Tilgangur tilraunanna var að kanna áhrif mismunandi kælimiðla við forkælingu fyrir pökkun á hitastýringu, gæði og geymsluþol þorskflaka. Eftirfarandi kælimiðlar voru kannaðir og bornir saman við enga sérstaka forkælingu fyrir pökkun:

  1. pækill með lágu saltinnihaldi, 2) krapaís með lágu saltinnihaldi.

Auk þess voru könnuð áhrif þess að nota annars vegar ísmottur og hins vegar þurrís við geymslu flakanna. Fylgst var með breytingum á hitastigi með hitanemum á öllum stigum. Sýni voru gæðametin með skynmati, örveru- og efnamælingum í allt að 13 daga frá vinnslu og pökkun (16 daga frá veiði). Flökin voru geymd við ofurkældar aðstæður (undir 0 °C) mestan hluta geymslutímans. Lægra hitastig krapaíss en pækils leiddi til lægra hitastigs flaka við pökkun auk þess sem hiti vökvapækilsins reyndist hækka hratt þegar hlé var gert á vinnslu. Mismunandi meðhöndlun leiddi til sambærilegs ferskleikatíma samkvæmt skynmati. Hins vegar reyndist notkun vökvapækils við forkælingu fyrir pökkun leiða til 1 – 2 daga skemmra geymsluþols samanborið við enga forkælingu eða forkælingu með krapaís. Rekja má ástæður þessa til þess að pækillinn innihélt töluvert magn örvera, m.a. H2S-myndandi gerla sem eru virkir framleiðendur á trímetýlamíni (TMA). Samanburður á vökvakældu flökunum sýndi að notkun á þurrís lengdi geymsluþol um 1 dag í samanburði við ísmottur. Niðurstöður örveru- og efnamælinga voru í samræmi við þessar niðurstöður.

The aim of the experiment was to investigate effects of two cooling media during precooling at processing on temperature control, quality and storage life of cod fillets. The two cooling media compared to no special precooling during processing (NC) were: 1) liquid brine (LC) and 2) slurry ice (SIC). In addition, the influence of using either dry ice or ice packs during storage was studied. The samples were kept at superchilled conditions during most of the trial. The environmental and product temperature history of each group was studied using temperature monitors. The samples were analysed with sensory evaluation, microbial and chemical methods for up to sixteen days from catch (thirteen days from processing). Lower temperature of the slurry ice than the liquid brine resulted in lower fillet temperature at packaging and the liquid brine temperature increased rapidly during a processing break, which seems to be a weakness of the liquid brine tank. Results from sensory, microbial and chemical analysis all showed that immersing the skinless cod fillets in liquid cooling brine prior to packaging resulted in one to two days reduction of shelf life in comparison with fillets that were not immersed in liquid brine (no cooling) or in slurry ice. This could be attributed to the fact that the cooling brine carried considerable amounts of microbes including H2Sproducing bacteria which are active producers of trimethylamine (TMA). Comparison of the groups receiving liquid cooling showed that dry ice appeared to extend the shelf life of one day as compared to ice packs. The length of the freshness period was, however, similar in all experimental groups according to sensory evaluation. These results were confirmed by total volatile bases (TVB-N) and TMA analysis and microbial counts.

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The effect of liquid cooling at processing and different cooling techniques during transport of cod (Gadus morhua) fillets

Author(s):

Hannes Magnússon, Lárus Þorvaldsson, Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir, Hélène L. Lauzon, Kristín Anna Þórarinsdóttir, Sigurjón Arason, Emilía Martinsdóttir

Funded by:

AVS R&D Fund of Ministry of Fisheries in Iceland, the Technology Development Fund at the Icelandic Centre for Research and EU (contract FP6-016333-2)

Contact

Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir

Project Manager

kolbrun.sveinsdottir@matis.is

The effect of liquid cooling at processing and different cooling techniques during transport of cod (Gadus morhua) fillets

Tilgangur tilraunanna var að kanna áhrif mismunandi kælitækni og áhrif hitasveiflna á gæði og geymsluþol þorskflaka. Eftirfarandi kælitækni var könnuð: Vökvakæling í pækli við vinnslu miðað við enga kælingu og áhrif hitasveiflna við geymslu í samanburði við stöðugt hitastig (-1°C). Auk þess voru könnuð áhrif þess að nota annars vegar ísmottur og hins vegar þurrís við geymslu flakanna. Fylgst var með breytingum á hitastigi með hitanemum á öllum stigum. Sýni voru gæðametin með skynmati, örveru- og efnamælingum í allt að 14 daga frá veiði (11 daga frá vinnslu og pökkun). Mismunandi meðhöndlun leiddi til mismunandi ferskleikatíma og geymsluþols samkvæmt skynmati. Hópar sem voru vökvakældir við vinnslu höfðu um 2-3 daga skemmra geymsluþol en flök sem ekki voru kæld á þennan hátt. Rekja mátti ástæður þessa til þess að kælipækillinn innihélt töluvert magn örvera m.a. skemmdargerilinn Photobacterium phosphoreum sem er mjög virkur framleiðandi á trímetýlamíni (TMA). Samanburður á vökvakældu flökunum sýndi að notkun á þurrís lengdi geymsluþol um 1-2 daga í samanburði við ísmottur. Geymsla við -1°C hafði ekki merkjanleg áhrif á ferskleikatíma og geymsluþol í samanburði við flök þar sem hitasveiflum var beitt samkvæmt skynmati. Niðurstöður örveru- og efnamælinga voru í samræmi við þessar niðurstöður.

The aim of the experiment was to investigate the effects of different cooling techniques and temperature fluctuations on the storage life of cod fillets. The following cooling techniques were studied: liquid cooling in brine at plant as compared to no special cooling at processing. The effect of real temperature (RTS) simulation during storage was compared to a steady storage temperature at -1°C. Additionally, the influence of using either dry ice or ice packs during storage was studied. The temperature history of each group was studied using temperature loggings. The samples were analyzed with sensory evaluation, microbial and chemical methods for up to 14 days from catch (11 days from packaging). The different treatments of the groups resulted in different lengths of freshness period and maximum shelf life according to sensory evaluation. Liquid cooling resulted in a 2-3 days shorter maximum shelf life than the group that was not receiving liquid cooling. This could be attributed to the fact that the cooling brine carried considerable amounts of microbes including the spoilage bacterium Photobacterium phosphoreum which is an active producer of trimethylamine (TMA). Comparison of the groups receiving liquid cooling showed that dry ice appeared to extend the shelf life of 1-2 days as compared to ice packs. Storage at -1°C did not have much influence on the freshness period or maximum shelf life. These results were confirmed by total volatile bases (TVB-N) and TMA analysis and microbial counts.

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Categories
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The effect of different cooling techniques and temperature fluctuations on the storage life of cod fillets (Gadus morhua)

Author(s):

Hannes Magnússon, Hélène L. Lauzon, Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir, Björn Margeirsson, Eyjólfur Reynisson, Árni Rafn Rúnarsson, María Guðjónsdóttir, Kristín Anna Þórarinsdóttir, Sigurjón Arason, Emilía Martinsdóttir

Funded by:

AVS R&D Fund of Ministry of Fisheries in Iceland, the Technology Development Fund at the Icelandic Centre for Research and EU (contract FP6-016333-2)

Contact

Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir

Project Manager

kolbrun.sveinsdottir@matis.is

The effect of different cooling techniques and temperature fluctuations on the storage life of cod fillets (Gadus morhua)

Tilgangur tilraunanna var að kanna tvo kælimiðla um borð í veiðiskipi, að nota mismunandi kælitækni við vinnslu, m.a. svonefnda CBC (combined blast and contact) kælingu og kanna áhrif hitastigssveiflna við geymslu í samanburði við stöðuga geymslu við -1 °C. Lítill munur var á örveru- og efnamælingum hvort sem notaður var plötuís eða vökvaís fyrir vinnslu en samkvæmt skynmati reyndist hópurinn sem var kældur með vökvaís hafa eins dags lengri ferskleikatíma og geymsluþol. Hitastig var yfirleitt aðeins hærra í hópnum þar sem plötuís var notaður fyrir vinnslu yfir geymslutímann. Samkvæmt skynmati, örverutalningum og efnamælingum reyndist CBC kæling best til lengingar á ferskleikatíma og geymsluþoli. Hitastig reyndist vera lægra í þeim hópum þar sem CBC kæling var notuð. Örverufjöldi var svipaður í þeim tveimur hópum þar sem CBC kæling var ekki notuð við vinnsluna (vökvakæling og engin kæling). Þessar niðurstöður voru í samræmi við niðurstöður skynmats. TMA gildi voru aðeins hærri á geymsludögum 12-19 í hópnum sem var vökvakældur. Niðurstöður hitastigsmælinga yfir geymslutímann voru svipaðar. Svipaður örverufjöldi reyndist vera í hópum sem geymdir voru við stöðugt hitastig (um -1 °C) annars vegar og í hópum þar sem hitastigssveiflum var beitt fyrri hluta geymslutímans hins vegar. Fyrstu 15 daga geymslunnar reyndust TVB-N og TMA gildi vera svipuð í hópunum. Þeir hópar sem geymdir voru við stöðugt hitastig fóru ekki í skynmat. Örverumælingar sem gerðar voru með hinni fljótvirku aðferð qPCR voru í góðu samræmi við ræktunaraðferðir m.t.t. til Pseudomonas spp. og Photobacterium phosphoreum.

The purpose of this experiment was to examine two different cooling methods on board fishing vessel, to apply different cooling techniques during processing at fish plant including the CBC (combined blast and contact) cooling and to compare storage of packed cod fillets kept either at steady temperature (-1 °C) or under temperature fluctuations. No marked difference was seen in microbial and chemical measurements whether plate ice or liquid ice was used prior to filleting but according to sensory analysis, the experimental group where liquid ice was used had one day extension in freshness and shelf life compared to the group with plate ice. Temperature was usually slightly higher in the plate ice group than the liquid ice group during storage. According to sensory, microbiological and chemical analysis, the CBC cooling clearly resulted in longer freshness period and shelf life extension in comparison to the two groups where this technique was not applied during processing. Temperature was lower in these groups during the storage period. Similar microbial counts were found between the two experimental groups where CBC was not applied during processing (liquid cooling and no cooling). These results were in agreement with results from sensory analysis. TMA values were however higher on storage days 12 to 19 in the group with liquid cooling. Temperature measurements during storage of these two groups were very similar. No marked difference was seen in microbial counts between groups that were stored at a constant temperature around -1 °C compared to groups where temperature fluctuations were used during early phases of storage. During the first 15 days of storage, TVB-N and TMA values were very similar for these groups. Sensory analysis was not done on the two groups kept at -1 °C. The rapid qPCR analysis was generally in good agreement with the cultivation methods for Pseudomonas spp. and Photobacterium phosphoreum.

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