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Geymsluþolstilraunir á þorskbitum: Áhrif ofurkælingar, pæklunar og gaspökkunar á gæðabreytingar og geymsluþol / Storage trials on cod loins: Effect of superchilling, brining and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on quality changes and sensory shelf-life

Author(s):

Hannes Magnússon, Hélène L. Lauzon, Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir, Ása Þorkelsdóttir, Birna Guðbjörnsdóttir, Emilía Martinsdóttir, Guðrún Ólafsdóttir, María Guðjónsdóttir, Sigurður Bogason, Sigurjón Arason

Funded by:

AVS rannsóknasjóður í sjávarútvegi, Tækniþróunarsjóður (Rannís)

Contact

Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir

Project Manager

kolbrun.sveinsdottir@matis.is

Geymsluþolstilraunir á þorskbitum: Áhrif ofurkælingar, pæklunar og gaspökkunar á gæðabreytingar og geymsluþol / Storage trials on cod loins: Effect of superchilling, brining and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on quality changes and sensory shelf-life

Markmið þessara tilrauna var að meta áhrif ofurkælingar, lofskiptra umbúða (MAP) og pæklunar á gæðabreytingar og geymsluþol þorskbita. Þá voru könnuð áhrif gaspökkunar og mismunandi geymsluhita á vöxt nokkurra sýkla og bendiörvera. Tilraunin var framkvæmd í október 2006 hjá Samherja á Dalvík. Eftir lageringu (0,6 og 2% salt) var fiskurinn snyrtur og hnakkastykkjum pakkað annars vegar í hefðbundnar 3 kg frauðplastpakkningar (loftpökkun) og hins vegar í loftskiptar umbúðir. Gasblandan var stillt á 50% CO2, 5% O2 og 45% N2. Þrír bitar (350- 550g) voru settir í hvern bakka með þerrimottu. Eftir pökkun var sýnunum komið fyrir í frystihermum Matís sem stilltir voru á 0°C, -2°C og -4°C. Sýnin voru rannsökuð yfir fjögurra vikna geymslutímabil. Skynmat, örverutalningar og efnamælingar voru notaðar til að meta gæðabreytingar og geymsluþol. Pæklaður (2% salt) fiskur geymdist skemur en ópæklaðir (0,6% salt). Samanburður á örverufjölda daginn eftir pökkun sýndi að pæklaði fiskurinn innihélt tífalt meira af kuldaþolnum örverum en ópæklaður. Samkvæmt skynmati var geymsluþol pæklaða fisksins við -2°C 12-15 dagar í bæði loft- og gaspökkuðum bitum. Í ópæklaða fiskinum voru áhrif gaspökkunar og ofurkælingar greinileg. Geymsluþol loftpakkaðra bita var um 11 dagar við 0°C en 14-15 dagar við -2°C. Geymsluþol gaspakkaðra bita var hins vegar um 15 dagar við 0°C en um 21 dagur við -2°C. Ofurkæling ferskra ópæklaðra fiskafurða í loftskiptum umbúðum getur því aukið geymsluþol verulega. Gaspökkun dró verulega úr vaxtarhraða sýkla og bendiörvera við lágt hitastig. Mest voru áhrifin á vöxt Salmonella, þá á Escherichia coli en minnst á Listeria monocytogenes. Við loftskilyrði óx L. monocytogenes við -2°C, en E. coli byrjaði að fjölga sér við 5°C og Salmonella við 10°C.

The aim of these experiments was to evaluate the effect of superchilling, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and brining on the quality changes and sensory shelf-life of cod loins. The effect of MAP and different storage temperatures on some pathogenic and indicator bacteria was also tested. These experiments were initiated in October 2006 at Samherji, Dalvík. After brining (0,6 og 2% salt) the fish fillets were trimmed, and loins packed on one hand in 3 kg styrofoam boxes (air) and on the other in MA. The gas mixture used was 50% CO2, 5% O2 and 45% N2. Three pieces (350-550 g) were placed in each tray with an absorbing mat. After packaging the samples were placed in 3 coolers at Matís which were adjusted to 0°C, -2°C and -4°C. Samples were examined over a four-week period. Sensory analysis, microbial counts and chemical measurements were used to determine the quality changes and shelf-life. Brined loins had a shorter shelf-life than unbrined (0,6% salt). Comparison on numbers of microorganisms the day after packaging revealed that the brined pieces contained ten times more microbes than the unbrined ones. According to sensory analysis the shelf-life of the brined loins at -2°C was 12-15 days for both air- and MA-packed fish. In the unbrined loins the effects of superchilling and MAP were obvious. The shelf-life of air-packed loins was about 11 days at 0°C and 14-15 days at -2°C. The shelf-life of MA-packed loins was about 15 days at 0°C but 21 days at -2°C. Superchilling of unbrined fish under MA can therefore increase the keeping quality considerably. MA-packaging clearly decreased the growth rate of pathogenic and indicator bacteria at low storage temperatures. Most effects were seen with Salmonella, then Escherichia coli but least with Listeria monocytogenes. In fact, L. monocytogenes could grow at -2°C under aerobic conditions, while proliferation of E. coli was first observed at 5°C but 10°C for Salmonella.

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