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Reports

NordMar Plastic RISK: Socioeconomic risks of plastic to the bioeconomy – Icelandic case study

Author(s):

Hrönn Ólína Jörundsdóttir, Gunnar Þórðarson, Bryndís Björnsdóttir

Funded by:

Nordic Council of Ministers

Contact

Hrönn Ólína Jörundsóttir

Group Leader

hronn@matis.is

NordMar Plastic RISK: Socioeconomic risks of plastic to the bioeconomy – Icelandic case study

The risks related to plastic on the bioeconomy are not only biological, toxicological and chemical, but also societal and economical. Influence of tainted opinion on the Nordic environment or Nordic production could influence tourism, marketing and general wellbeing. The aim of the NordMar PlasticRISK project is to evaluate the diverse impact and main socioeconomic risks related to marine plastic pollution on the bioeconomy of the Nordic countries using Iceland as a case study. Two of the main industries in Iceland, the fishing industry and tourism, are heavily dependent on the bioeconomy as well as clean and pristine environment. Economical risks, followed by tainting the environment with visual plastic debris and macroplastic as well as unclear status of microplastic, is estimated to be high due to increased environmental awareness of consumers and tourists, where the main focus of tourist arriving to Iceland is to experience pristine environment. Several actions are suggested such as to evaluate and improve the Icelandic system for recycling of used fishing gear, evaluate further marketing options and value of advertising low and responsible plastic use in these two main industries and increase education on environmental issues in the School of navigation. 

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Reports

NordMar Plastic RISK: Socioeconomic risks of plastic to the bioeconomy – Icelandic case study. Executive summary.

Author(s):

Hrönn Ólína Jörundsdóttir, Gunnar Þórðarson, Bryndís Björnsdóttir

Funded by:

Nordic Council of Ministers

Contact

Hrönn Ólína Jörundsóttir

Group Leader

hronn@matis.is

NordMar Plastic RISK: Socioeconomic risks of plastic to the bioeconomy – Icelandic case study. Executive summary.

The risks related to plastic on the bioeconomy are not only biological, toxicological and chemical, but also societal and economical. Influence of tainted opinion on the Nordic environment or Nordic production could influence tourism, marketing and general wellbeing. The aim of the NordMar PlasticRISK project is to evaluate the diverse impact and main socioeconomic risks related to marine plastic pollution on the bioeconomy of the Nordic countries using Iceland as a case study. Two of the main industries in Iceland, the fishing industry and tourism, are heavily dependent on the bioeconomy as well as clean and pristine environment. Economical risks, followed by tainting the environment with visual plastic debris and macroplastic as well as unclear status of microplastic, is estimated to be high due to increased environmental awareness of consumers and tourists, where the main focus of tourist arriving to Iceland is to experience pristine environment. Several actions are suggested such as to evaluate and improve the Icelandic system for recycling of used fishing gear, evaluate further marketing options and value of advertising low and responsible plastic use in these two main industries and increase education on environmental issues in the School of navigation. 

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EIT Food Reports

Holding of Sea Urchins and Scallops in a RAS Transport System

Author(s):

Guðmundur Stefánsson, Aðalheiður Ólafsdóttir

Funded by:

EIT Food

Contact

Guðmundur Stefánsson

Group Leader

gudmundur.stefansson@matis.is

Holding of Sea Urchins and Scallops in a RAS Transport System

Trials were carried out at Matís on holding live sea urchins and scallops in a RAS system developed by Technion, Israel, which not only recirculates the water, but additionally controls the pH and removes toxic ammonia. The aim of the trials was to test the feasibility of holding sea urchins and scallops alive in the RAS system for 10 days at 4°C, with at least 90% survival. The project was funded by EIT food, and the participants were Technion and Matís. 

The survival of sea urchins held in the RAS system at 4°C was high during the first five days. Eight days from catch the survival was only 80%, after 12 days about 50% and after 15 days, 10%. Sea urchins, packed in the standard way of transporting live urchins (in polystyrene boxes at 4°C) were at similar quality as the RAS stored sea urchins, five days from catch and the roe was still edible at eight days from catch. All the urchins in the polystyrene boxes were dead after 12 days storage and the roe inedible.

Scallops had a high survival when held in the RAS system or about 89% after 24-days at 4°C.  

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Reports

Trendy fish with Nordic Flavours, Workshop in Ålesund, Norway 29-30 October 2019

Author(s):

Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir, Aðalheiður Ólafsdóttir, Ingebrigt Bjørkevoll, Wenche Emblem Larssen

Funded by:

AG Fisk 185-2019

Contact

Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir

Project Manager

kolbrun.sveinsdottir@matis.is

Trendy fish with Nordic Flavours, Workshop in Ålesund, Norway 29-30 October 2019

Salt-curing of cod is an ancient storage method.  Today, salt-curing is not merely a storage method, but a method of producing high quality products of specific characteristics. To promote a product as salt-cured fish, with long tradition, history and strong connection to Nordic livelihoods, it is important to motivate the whole chain, from producers, to retailers, to chefs, to schools and the consumers.

AG-Fisk (Arbejdsgruppen for Fiskerisamarbedet) under the auspices of the Nordic Council of Ministers has provided funding for a project with the aim to increase the knowledge of seafood, such as salt-cured cod, thus contributing to increased respect and thus increased value. The project is led by Matís and one of the project tasks was to organise a workshop in Norway in collaboration with Møreforsking and Klippfiskakademiet in Ålesund. The workshop was co-financed by The Ministry of Trade, Industry and Fisheries in Norway. The workshop was held on 29th and 30th of October 2019 and the focus was salted and dried cod. Culinary students together with chefs from Norway, Faroe Islands and Iceland, aimed to develop new trendy dishes with emphasis on Nordic raw materials combined with salted and dried cod. During the workshop, Nordic traditions and history were presented, the different salt fish products and their different sensory properties. The participants tasted different cod products (thawed, lightly salted, desalted salt-cured cod and desalted clip fish) with the aim of analysing the different sensory properties of these products. The results clearly demonstrated the unique sensory properties of salt-cured and clip fish products.

Nordic chefs gave talks of their experiences, thoughts, visions and ideas for Nordic raw materials, to set the scene for the work ahead. Group work was focused on analysing opportunities and barriers, todays status and ideas to increase consumption of traditional products, product ideas to make salt-cured and clip fish more known and attractive in home markets. One of the main targets was to increase the consumption among young people by inspiring them to create new, trendy recipes and dishes that they would like. Based on this, innovative dishes were made and evaluated during the workshop. The variety in the dishes, clearly demonstrated the enormous potentials of this traditional raw material, to be used in delicious trendy innovative dishes, from simple and easily prepared to challenging and ambitious.

The group discussions showed that traditions were considered a strength but a lack of ready to cook and ready to eat meals as well as changes in consumption habits were considered a threat. This kind of information is important when setting the scene for the future of salt-cured fish, both in home markets and export markets.  The Norwegian participants were familiar with salt-cured fish and clip fish and it was not uncommon to prepare such dishes at home, and some variety was available in the supermarkets. However, to increase product variety and increased consumption of traditional Nordic foods such as salted fish, it is important to work with kids, both at home and at schools. It is of great importance to educate them about Nordic food and involve them in food preparation, both at home and in school. The emphasis on sustainability, health and positive climate impact, as well as adapting food trends from all over the world, can be used to inspire new innovative dishes made from traditional raw materials such as salted fish.

Emphasis must be placed on increasing knowledge among chefs, as well as consumers, of the different products made of salted fish, such as lightly salted cod, fully salt-cured and clip fish, as the characteristics of these products are very different. How consumers, and not the least young consumers, are to be educated and motivated to consume such dishes needs thorough consideration. Newer means of communication deserve attention, with focus on how the young people seek, find and receive information.

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EIT Food Reports

Holding of Arctic char in a RAS transport system

Author(s):

Guðmundur Stefánsson, Aðalheiður Ólafsdóttir

Funded by:

EIT Food

Contact

Guðmundur Stefánsson

Group Leader

gudmundur.stefansson@matis.is

Holding of Arctic char in a RAS transport system

In September 2019 two live holding trials with Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) were carried out at Matís where the fish was kept for up to eight days in a RAS holding and transport system developed by Technion, Israel Institute of Technology. The RAS system, which recirculated the water, controled the pH and removed accumulated ammonia, was set up in a 40 feet reefer tank to control the temperature at 4°C. The project was funded by EIT food and the participants were Technion and Matís.

The results show that Arctic char could be held at a density of 80 kg/m3 at 4°C for 8 days in the RAS system, without adverse effects on mortality. Moreover, no differences were found in the sensory quality (flavour, odour, appearance and texture) of the stored fish compared with fish before it was placed in the RAS system. The stored fish had however more gaping, higher cooking yield and marginally lighter colour than fish before placing in the system. 

However, a bio-load of 135-145 kg/m3 Arctic char in the RAS storage and holding system led to a high mortality. Moreover, on slaughter the surviving fish had adverse sensory quality as indicated by loss of characteristic flavour and odour as well as firmer, drier and tougher texture. The fish had a high incidence of gaping, a high cooking yield and showed evidence of deformation on cooking.

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Reports

Neytendakönnun um saltfisk

Author(s):

Aðalheiður Ólafsdóttir, Kolbrún Sveinsdóttir

Funded by:

AG Fisk, AVS rannsóknasjóður

Contact

Aðalheiður Ólafsdóttir

Sensory Evaluation Manager

adalheiduro@matis.is

Neytendakönnun um saltfisk

Löng hefð er fyrir vinnslu saltfisks hér á landi en áður fyrr var öðru fremur notast við saltið til að lengja geymsluþol fiskins. Í dag telst saltfiskur sælkeravara sem nýtur mikilla vinsælda víða um heim, ekki síst í Suður-Evrópu, þar sem hefðir og gæði íslenska saltfisksins leika stórt hlutverk. Matís stóð fyrir vinnustofum  með saltfiskframleiðendum og matreiðslumönnum í apríl og maí 2019. Markmiðið með þeim var meðal annars að meta stöðu saltfisks á heimamarkaði. Þar kom fram að afla þyrfti upplýsinga um sýn Íslendinga á saltfiski til að meta betur tækifærin hérlendis. Byggt á niðurstöðum vinnustofanna var framkvæmd vefkönnun með það að markmiði að rannsaka ímynd saltfiskafurða í hugum Íslendinga, almenna þekkingu á saltfiski og sögu hans, og upplifun á saltfiski. Einnig var könnuð neyslutíðni á saltfiski, léttsöltuðum fiski og nætursöltuðum fiski, sem og viðhorf til saltfisks samanborið við léttsaltaðan- og nætursaltaðan fisk.  Könnunin var framkvæmd í maí 2019 og birtist 17.000 notendum Facebook, 18 ára og eldri. Alls luku 505 manns könnuninni.

Mikill munur var á svörum þátttakenda eftir aldri. Niðurstöðurnar sýna að neysla á bæði fiski og saltfiski fer minnkandi með lækkandi aldri. Einungis um 29% þátttakenda á aldrinum 18-29 ára borða saltfisk einu sinni á ári eða oftar en samsvarandi hlutfall fyrir elsta hópinn, 60-70 ára, er um 94%. Helsta ástæða þess að þátttakendur borða ekki saltfisk er að þeim finnst hann ekki góður. Aðrar orsakir eru að hann er of saltur, skortur á framboði, að það sé lítil hefð fyrir saltfiski, og að ferskur fiskur sé frekar valinn. Almennt voru viðhorf til saltfisks nokkuð jákvæð og upplifun þeirra sem hafa keypt saltfisk á veitingastað, fiskbúð og matvöruverslun góð. Hins vegar eru yngri þátttakendur almennt neikvæðari fyrir saltfiski og líklegri til að finnast bragð af saltfiski vont en þeim sem eldri eru. Þekking og áhugi á saltfiski minnkar einnig með lækkandi aldri og á það sama við um kauptíðni á saltfiski, léttsöltuðum fiski og nætursöltuðum fiski. Niðurstöður gefa til kynna að mismunandi smekkur sé eftir aldri á því hversu saltur saltfiskur á að vera. Eldri þátttakendur eru líklegri til að vilja hafa saltfisk vel saltan og finnst hann sjaldnar of saltur en þeim sem yngri eru.

Saltfiskurinn hefur verið samofinn sögu Íslendinga og matarmenningu í árhundruð. Niðurstöður úr þessari könnun sýna hins vegar minnkandi þekkingu, áhuga og neyslu á saltfiski í yngri aldurshópum. Þessi þróun getur skýrst af auknu úrvali matvara, breyttum smekk, viðhorfum og venjum. Líklegt er að ímynd saltfisks sem gæðavöru eigi undir högg að sækja og að miklar breytingar séu að verða á neyslu saltfisks meðal Íslendinga. Til að ýta undir neyslu á saltfiski þarf að kynna hann betur og gera sýnilegri, ekki síst meðal yngri aldurshópa, hvort heldur sem er í mötuneytum, matvöruverslunum, fiskbúðum eða veitingastöðum.

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Reports

Aukin gæði og stöðugleiki frosinna síldarafurða / Increased quality and stability of frozen herring products

Author(s):

Magnea Karlsdóttir, Huong Thi Thu Dang, María Guðjónsdóttir, Ásbjörn Jónsson, Sigurjón Arason

Funded by:

AVS R&D Fund

Contact

Sigurjón Arason

Head Engineer

sigurjon.arason@matis.is

Aukin gæði og stöðugleiki frosinna síldarafurða / Increased quality and stability of frozen herring products

Freezing and frozen storage has proven to be an effective method to preserve and prolong the storage life of seafood products. Production of frozen products provides all year around product availability although the catching is seasonal. There are several factors that can affect the quality and stability of frozen fish products, including the state of the raw material, processing methods and storage conditions.

The aim of the study was to explore how the physicochemical properties of frozen herring fillets are affected regarding the state of the raw material during processing as well as storage conditions. Atlantic herring was processed and frozen pre- and post-rigor and stored at stable (-25 °C) and abused storage conditions. To investigate the storage stability and physical properties of the fillets, thawing drip, cooking yield and colour were evaluated, as well as proximate composition, fatty acid composition, pH and lipid degradation of the light and the dark muscle.

The study demonstrated the importance of stable and controlled temperature during storage and transportation of frozen herring products. Processing and freezing pre-rigor, in combination with stable storage conditions, was shown to be beneficial in terms of preventing lipid oxidation, as well as reducing thawing loss and maintaining the cooking yield of the herring fillets.

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Reports

Hitastigsbreytingar við vinnslu, flutning og geymslu á frosinni síld / Temperature profiles during processing, transportation and storage of frozen herring products

Author(s):

Magnea Karlsdóttir, Finnur Jónasson, Ásbjörn Jónsson, Sigurjón Arason

Funded by:

AVS R&D Fund

Contact

Sigurjón Arason

Head Engineer

sigurjon.arason@matis.is

Hitastigsbreytingar við vinnslu, flutning og geymslu á frosinni síld / Temperature profiles during processing, transportation and storage of frozen herring products

The main objective of the project was to maximize the qualiry and value of herring products. Quality and stability of frocen herring products seasonally and impact of pre-cooling, freezing and storage condition were explored. The results will not only lead to a less decrease in quality due to storage and transportation, but also increase understanding on connection between product defect and their influence on the raw material from catch to market.

The results showed thar frozen herring products didn‘t get enough cooling through the process, from production to export, and in some cases the variation was too much. The freezing planti n Iceland was good, and all the pallets was kept at right temperature. The problem is, when they were taken out of the freezing storage in Iceland, the cooling was not sufficient, which was necessary to maintain low temperature. It is difficult to prevent heat stress when exporting frozen product.

The results of the project indicated that the temprature in freezing trawls was stable during the sailing. Also the results indicated that it is a need for improvements in the freezing plant in Poland, where the temperature in freezing storage is higher compared to Iceland. Transportation in containers was much better than in freezing trawlers, but much more expensive.

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Reports

Efnasamsetning sölva – Árstíðarsveiflur

Author(s):

Þóra Valsdóttir, Karl Gunnarsson

Funded by:

Verkefnissjóður sjávarútvegsins, AVS

Contact

Þóra Valsdóttir

Project Manager

thora.valsdottir@matis.is

Efnasamsetning sölva – Árstíðarsveiflur

Markmið rannsóknarinnar var að kanna magn næringarefna, steinefna og snefilefna í sölvum eftir árstíma til að meta hvenær best sé að uppskera þau m.t.t. næringarsjónarmiða. Tekin voru sýni á tveimur stöðum, Tjaldanesi við Saurbæ í Dalasýslu og Herdísarvík við Selvog á Reykjanesi á tímabilinu frá október 2011 til apríl 2013.

Árstíðarsveiflur greindust í innihaldi næringarefna í sölvum bæði í Herdísarvík og Tjaldanesi og fylgdu þær svo til sama ferli. Snemma vors náði magn trefja, próteina, fitu, ösku og vatns hámarki. Mælingar bentu einnig til árstíðarsveiflna í sumum þeirra steinefna og snefilefna sem mæld voru; kalíum, fosfór, joð, selen, kadmín og blý. Þungmálmar voru innan viðmiðunarmarka að undanskildu kadmín á veturna.

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Reports

Áhrif dauðastirðnunar á fiskgæði ll

Author(s):

Gunnar Þórðarson, Sigurjón Arason

Funded by:

AVS Rannsóknasjóður í sjávarútvegi (R 17 019-17)

Contact

Gunnar Þórðarson

Regional Manager

gunnar.thordarson@matis.is

Áhrif dauðastirðnunar á fiskgæði ll

Tilgangur rannsóknarinnar var annars vegar að rannsaka áhrif ofurkælingar á dauðstirðnunarferli þorsk- og laxaflaka og bera saman við hefðbundna kælingu; og hins vegar að skoða hvort flökun á mismunandi tímasetningu í dauðastirðnunarferli (fyrir dauðastirðnun, í dauðastirðnun og eftir að ferlinu lýkur) hefði á afurðagæði. Fyrir lax var gerð fortilraun sem megintilraunin var byggð á, en í þorski var tilraun gerð á villtum þorski og eldisfiski.

Ofurkæling á þorski er miðuð við kælingu niður í -0,8 °C og laxi í -1,2 °C en hefðbundin kæling er miðuð við 0 °C fyrir báðar tegundir. Skoðaður var mismunur milli hópa og einnig borinn saman mismunur innan hópa. Lítill munur innan hópa bendir til nákvæmari og trúverðugri niðurstöðu.

Niðurstöður úr könnun sem var framkvæmd af skynmatshópi sýna að áhrif ofurkælingar eru töluverð þar sem um minni samdrátt er að ræða í dauðastirðnunarferlinu, og áhrif á gæði því minni. Munur er milli villts þorsks og eldisþorsks enda þekkt að vatnsinnihald milli fruma er minna í eldisþroski en villtum. Áhugavert gæti verið að skoða muninn milli eldislax og villts lax, en það var utan við markmið þessarar rannsóknar.

Draga má þá ályktun að með ofurkælingu væri hægt að vinna lax fyrir dauðastirðnun án gæðarýrnunar, sem gæti skipt máli við markaðssetningu á ferskum afurðum í framtíðinni, þar sem hægt væri að fullvinna laxinn strax við slátrun og auka þannig geymsluþol á erlendum mörkuðum.

Eitt af markmiðum verkefnisins var að útbúa kynningarefni um dauðastirðnunarferlið og áhrif þess á gæði afurða fyrir framleiðendur á laxi og þorski á Íslandi sem gæti gagnast þeim í framtíðinni við að takast á við nýjar áskoranir í framleiðslu á hágæða afurðum.

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