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BADMINTON (Bycatch And Discards: Management Indicators, Trends and locatiON)

Author(s):

Sveinn Margeirsson, Sigríður Sigurðardóttir, Elísabet Kemp Stefánsdóttir, Jónas R. Viðarsson

Funded by:

MariFish, Tækniþróunarsjóður

Contact

Jónas R. Viðarsson

Director of Division of value creation

jonas@matis.is

BADMINTON (Bycatch And Discards: Management Indicators, Trends and locatiON)

Meginmarkmið verkefnisins var að afla þekkingar um brottkast mynstur í Evrópu og meta skilvirkni aðgerða gegn brottkasti, þar með talið skilvirkni veiðarfæra. Annað markmið var að bæta aðferðir til að meta og stjórna meðafla og brottkasti. Tvær meginaðferðir voru notaðar í verkefninu. Í fyrsta lagi var notast við gögn sem var safnað undir the European Union Data Collection Regulation (2002) síðar the Data Collection Framework (2008). Þar er um að ræða gögn safnað á landsvísu þar sem eftirlitsmenn fylgjast með veiðarferð og skrá afla og brottkast. Gögn af þessu tagi hafa nokkra vel þekkta galla, það er dýrt að safna þeim og þau hafa óhjákvæmilega bjaga, en eru engu að síður mikilvæg upplýsingaveita. Í þessu verkefni voru þessi gögn sameinuð fyrir nokkur lönd innan Evrópusambandsins. Það var flókið ferli þar sem aðferðir við söfnun gagnanna var mismunandi milli landa. Sú undirbúningsvinna mun koma sér vel fyrir framtíðarverkefni, þar sem ætlunin er að nýta gögn fyrir fleiri en eitt land. Ekki er hægt að skilja hegðun manna til fullnustu með athugunum á tölulegum gögnum. Að skilja brottkast er engin undantekning þar á. Því voru einnig tekin viðtöl við hagsmunaaðila og sérfræðinga um sjónarmið þeirra á brottkast vandanum. Vonast var til að viðtölin myndu bæta við þá þekkingu sem fékkst með greiningu fyrirgreindra gagna. Þessar tvær leiðir sem verkefnið notaðist við leiddi til sömu tveggja meginniðurstaðna. Í fyrsta lagi að mikill munur er á brottkastmynstrum eftir veiðisvæðum, löndum, veiðarfærum, stærð skipa og tegundum. Það virðist sem munurinn sé mestur milli veiðisvæða og þar með að best sé að reglugerðir um brottkast séu aðlagaðar hverju svæði fyrir sig. Í öðru lagi virðist brottkast, magn, mynstur og samsetning þess, ráðast af mörgum þáttum. Sérstaklega virðast núgildandi reglugerðir (EU Common Fisheries Policy) og samspil mismunandi þátta hennar hafa mikil áhrif. Þar af leiðandi verður gagnsemi mismunandi aðferða til að minnka brottkast erfitt að meta. Miklu skiptir hvaða aðferðir eru notaðar í sameiningu.

Discarding keeps being an important issue in world fisheries; it is a way for fishers to adjust their landings to the legal and market constraints, but is largely considered as a waste of rare natural resources and as contributing to the depletion of stocks bearing a high fishing pressure. Many jurisdictions, including the European Commission, are preparing regulations to reduce or ban discards. To design effective regulations, an understanding of the extent and processes of the issue is required. The MariFish BADMINTON project aimed to build up the knowledge of discarding patterns and factors in European fisheries, evaluate the efficacy of selective devices and other discard management measures that have been implemented in the past, and improve methods to analyse, monitor, and manage bycatch and discarding. Specific objectives included the provision of discard estimates for selected European fisheries, and of appropriate indicators; the determination of the most important factors affecting discard amounts and composition; and the elaboration of integrated management approaches to the discard issue. BADMINTON relied on two types of approaches to fulfill these aims and objectives. First was the analysis of onboard observer data, since intensive collection of catch and discard data onboard commercial vessels has been undertaken in European countries under the European Union Data Collection Regulation (2002) followed and intensified by the Data Collection Framework (2008). Thus, one significant contribution of the project was to collate onboard observer data from several European Union member states, given the many differences between national onboard observer programmes sampling schemes, protocols, details of data recorded, and data storage formats. This first step paves the way towards a future better integration of national onboard observer programmes. The second approach was to conduct stakeholder interviews and expert consultation, which was meant to complement the data analyses with fisher’s perspectives on the discard issue, and to provide an integrated approach toward management. Both approaches lead to the following two broad conclusions: · Discard patterns exhibited high diversity across regions, countries, gear types, vessel sizes, and species, with variability being more pronounced among regions. Thus, discard management approaches might be devised at a regional level – consistent with the proposed regionalization of the currently discussed reform of the European Union Common Fisheries Policy. · Discards amounts, patterns, and composition, are determined by a multitude of interacting natural and human (economic and social) factors in a given place and time, and usually no simple explanations can suffice. The project has developed a number of tools, distinguished in three categories ie. · selectivity related tools · tools to appraise and understand the discarding issue · tools that can be used to assist in devising management strategies A discard management strategy should not include only a combination of discard mitigation measures; if discards are to be reduced, appropriate and consistent incentives need to be mended together.

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